All lives will be given a definite task, whether it is a right one or the wrong one.
How about a dead one? They are no longer having a purpose or a function because they are no longer given a live by God.
Okay, enough typing unconsciously, it is about Yes/No/Not Given as the title in this post. Well, after six months we are dating with IELTS course, finally and hopefully it can be a right prediction about this mystery.
I usually misled by the question, not the True one because it is obviously given in the passage with variety of rephrase styles, it is definitely written in the passage. No bargain. Then, what if the question is slightly contain some phrases or understanding that implicitly given to the passage? Theoretically, it could be False/No or Not Given.
Implicitly? Yep, it requires our comprehending about what is written in the paragraph. Here is the example;
This is in sharp contrast to the model of management that applies elsewhere in Europe. The principles of business process re-engineering have never been fully accepted in France, Germany and the other major economies; while in some Eastern European economies, the attempt to apply them in the nineties brought the economy virtually to its knees, and created huge opportunities for corrupt middle managers and organized crime.
In the question is written:
The European model gives more freedom of action to junior managers.
For me personally, I would like to take some keywords and match it with some words in the passage. My keywords are: ‘junior managers’ and ‘freedom of action’. I match the ‘junior managers’ with ‘middle managers’ (doesn’t match) and ‘freedom of action’ with ‘huge opportunities for corrupt and crime’ (match). For some occasions, all you need is just praying, seriously you won’t know which one to match because the monkey was so smart (I intentionally use ‘was’). By reading the question, do not interpret as the way it is written and do not fully accept what does it means in the surfaces because it has been modified to fail you. Try to analyse it in another meaning, may be you can argue how come huge opportunity for corrupt is similar with freedom to action, all I can say is ‘practice makes perfect’, you will have the sixth sense to know what it means sometimes without a logical explanation.
Okay then I have to derive that question into two parts, I like to name it Head and Tail, instead, Subject and Object. Not without a reason, you can still alive without a Tail, but may be live wrongly (False/No). In addition, you can’t live without a Head even you have a Tail (Not Given).
Head: The European model gives more freedom of action
Tail: to junior managers
After doing matching, I will know which one that I have and I don’t have.
Head: ….freedom to action is matched with passage then I have my Head.
Tail: junior managers != middle managers then I don’t have my Tail
Please guess, am I still alive? I have my Head but I have no Tail. Yep, I am alive but live wrongly. It means the answer is No/False.
Let’s do another exercise.
We have to be cooperative team members rather than work on our own. We have to accept that, in flattened and decentralized organizations, there are very limited career prospects. We are to be motivated by target-related rewards rather than a longer-term commitment to our employing organization.
In the question is written:
There are good opportunities for promotion within segmented companies.
Again, my keywords are ‘good opportunities for promotion’ and ‘segmented companies’ (you can have another keyword). I matched ‘good opportunities for promotion’ with ‘limited career prospects’, hmm how do you think? Is it match? No, it isn’t matched, they have a reverse meaning. Good opportunities for promotion is contradict with limited career prospects or something that have a good career prospects is easily get promoted. Let see another keyword, ‘segmented companies’ with ‘flattened and decentralized organizations’. Is it match? Segmented means focus in their own segment rather than central organizations, it has a contradict meaning with centralized organizations then. Wait, let us see once more to the passage, it is written ‘decentralized’ not ‘centralized’. So, ‘segmented companies’ is just another way to name ‘decentralized organizations’ and yes it is match. What do we have now?
Head: …segmented companies match with decentralized, and yes we have the Head.
Tail: …good opportunities for promotion… is not match with limited career prospects then we have no Tail.
Are we still alive? Yes, we still alive without a tail, then the answer is False/No.
Well, it is still my hypothesis that works correctly in four trials, not all the F/T/NG question types always need this treatment. It can be applied only for a heart-breaking question that makes you surrender to find the answer 😀
Another difficulty is the way we choose Head and Tail. It can be simply by looking which one is affecting the other. For example, the latest question, which one is make sense to you?
a) Because they don’t have good opportunities for promotion then the organization type is segmented company.
b) Because it is segmented company then they don’t have good opportunities for promotion.
It works for B, the ‘segmented company’ rule the ‘opportunities’, then you can simply put segmented company as your Head and the other one is your Tail and please never let the Tail rule your Head 🙂
Good Luck, everybody!
NB: These Head-Tail formula is found by having a deep conversations with my IELTS geek friends: Junita, Gum-Gum and Rokib 🙂